Thursday

Abdullah ibn Abbas RA - The Young Man of Maturity


Abdullah ibn Abbas RA father is Al-Abbas bin Abdul-Muttalib Al-Quraishi Ah-Hashimi, the uncle of Rasulullah . Abdullah ibn Abbas RA mother was Umm El-Fadl Lubabah bint Al-Harith. His maternal aunt was mother of the believers and wife of Rasulullah , Maimunah bint Al-Harith Al-Hilaliyyah.


Abdullah ibn Abbas RA was the second son of a wealthy merchant, ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, thus he was called Ibn Abbas (the son of Abbas). His mother was Umm al-Fadl Lubaba, who prided herself in being the second woman who converted to Islam, on the same day as her close friend Saidatuna Khadijah bint Khuwailid RA, Rasulullah 's wife.

The father of Abdullah ibn Abbas RA and the father of Rasulullah were both sons of Shaibah ibn Hashim, better known as ‘Abdu’l-Muṭṭalib. Shaiba bin Hashim's father was Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, the progenitor of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraish tribe in Mecca.

Abdullah ibn Abbas RA (Arabic: عبد الله ابن عباس‎) or ′Abdullah ibn al-′Abbas otherwise called (Ibn Abbas; Al-Habr; Al-Bahr; The Doctor; The Sea) was born c. 619 CE. Abdullah ibn Abbas RA was one of Rasulullah 's cousin and one of the early Qur'an scholars.

Early Muslims were subjected to all sorts of torments by the pagans of Quraish in the hope that they would abandon their religion but the torture only increased the early muslins adherence to their religion. The leaders of the various clans of Quraish signed a document which stipulated that unless the clan of Banu Hashim surrendered Rasulullah to them, it would be subjected to an economic and social boycott. They pledged themselves not to buy anything from, nor to sell anything to, the members of the Banu Hashim, and they placed intermarriage with them under proscription. The two clans of Banu Hashim and Banu al-Muttalib including Al-Abbas and his pregnant wife moved out of Makkah and took abode in a ravine. The clans were in a state of siege.
 

When Rasulullah knew that umm Al-Fadl was pregnant he said "Allah will brighten our countenances here with a boy"
When that boy was born Rasulullah smeared his palate with a date he himself chew so the prophet's saliva was the first thing the boy tasted even before being breast fed by his mum. That boy was Abdullah Ibn Abbas.

When Abdullah Ibn Abbas RA reached the age of discretion, he attached himself to the service of Rasulullah . He would run to fetch water for him when he wanted to make ablution (wudu). During prayer he would stand behind Rasulullah in prayer and when Rasulullah went on journeys or expeditions, he would follow next in line to him. Abdullah Ibn Abas RA thus became like the shadow of Rasulullah , constantly in his company.

In all these situations he was attentive and alert to whatever Rasulullah did and said. “His heart was enthusiastic and his young mind was pure and uncluttered”. Committing Rasulullah ’s words to memory with the capacity and accuracy of a recording instrument. In this way and through his constant researches later, as we shall see, Abdullah Ibn Abas RA became one of the most learned companions of Rasulullah , preserving on behalf of later generations of Muslims, the priceless words of Rasulullah . It is said that he committed to memory about one thousand, six hundred and sixty sayings of Rasulullah which are recorded and authenticated in the collections of al-Bukhari and Muslim.

Rasulullah would often draw Abdullah Ibn Abas RA as a child close to him, pat him on the shoulder and pray, "O Lord, make him acquire a deep understanding of the religion of Islam and instruct him in the meaning and interpretation of things."
 

It is reported on the authority of Abdullah Ibn Abbas RA that he said: "One day, I was riding behind Rasulullah when he said, "O boy! I will instruct you in some matters. Be watchful of Allah (Commandments of Allah), He will preserve you. Safeguard His Rights; He will be ever with you. If you beg, beg of Him Alone; and if you need assistance, supplicate to Allah Alone for help. And remember that if all the people gather to benefit you, they will not be able to benefit you except that which Allah had foreordained (for you); and if all of them gather to do harm to you, they will not be able to afflict you with anything other than that which Allah had pre-destined against you. The pens had been lifted and the ink had dried up".
[At- Tirmidhi].

His Knowledge
Abdullah Ibn Abas RA, was an incomparable scholar. Abdullah Ibn Abas RA was called Al-Bahr (the sea) and Habr Al-Ummah (the learned man of the nation) due to his immense knowledge especially in Quranic interpretation.

During the lifetime of Rasulullah , Abdullah Ibn Abas RA would not miss any of his assemblies and he would commit to memory whatever he said. After Rasulullah passed away, Abdullah Ibn Abas RA would take care to go to as many companions as possible especially those who knew Rasulullah longer and learn from them what Rasulullah had taught them. Whenever Abdullah Ibn Abas RA heard that someone knew a hadith of Rasulullah which he did not know he would go quickly to him and record it. Abdullah Ibn Abas RA would subject whatever he heard to close scrutiny and check it against other reports. He would go to as many as thirty companions to verify a single matter.

Abdullah Ibn Abas RA described what he once did on hearing that a companion of Rasulullah knew a hadith unknown to him:
"I went to him during the time of the afternoon siesta and spread my cloak in front of his door. The wind blew dust on me (as I sat waiting for him). If I wished I could have sought his permission to enter and he would certainly have given me permission. But I preferred to wait on him so that he could be completely refreshed. Coming out of his house and seeing me in that condition he said: 'O cousin of Rasulullah! What's the matter with you? If you had sent for me I would have come to you.' 'I am the one who should come to you, for knowledge is sought, it does not just come,' I said. I asked him about the hadith and learnt from him."
 

In this way, the dedicated Abdullah Ibn Abas RA would ask, and ask, and go on asking. And he would sift and scrutinize the information he had collected with his keen and meticulous mind. It was not only in the collection of hadith that Abdullah Ibn Abas RA specialized. Abdullah Ibn Abas RA devoted himself to acquiring knowledge in a wide variety of fields. Abdullah Ibn Abas RA had a special admiration for persons like Zayd ibn Thabit RA, the recorder of the revelation; the leading judge and jurist consult in Madinah, an expert in the laws of inheritance and in reading the Quran.

When Zayd Ibn Thabit RA intended to go on a trip, the young Abdullah Ibn Abas RA would stand humbly at his side and taking hold of the reins of his mount would adopt the attitude of a humble servant in the presence of his master. Zayd Ibn Thabit RA would say to him: "Don't, O cousin of Rasulullah!."
"Thus we were commanded to treat the learned ones among us," Abdullah Ibn Abas RA would say.
And Zayd Ibn Thabit RA would say to him in turn, "Let me see your hand."
Abdullah Ibn Abas RA would stretch out his hand. Zayd Ibn Thabit RA, taking it, would kiss it and say, "Thus we were commanded to treat the Ahlul-Bayt (members of the household of Rasulullah )."

As Abdullah Ibn Abas RA's knowledge grew, he grew in stature. Masruq ibn al-Ajdah said of him, "Whenever I saw Ibn Abbas, I would say: Abdullah Ibn Abas RA is the most handsome of men. When he spoke, I would say: He is the most eloquent of men. And when he held a conversation, I would say: He is the most knowledgeable of men."
 

The Khalifah 'Umar ibn al-Khattab RA often sought his advice on important matters of state and described him as "the young man of maturity".

Saad ibn Abi Waqqas RA described him with these words: "I have never seen someone who was quicker in understanding, who had more knowledge and greater wisdom than Ibn Abbas. I have seen Saidina Umar Ibn Al-Khattab RA summon him to discuss difficult problems in the presence of veterans of Badr from among the Muhajirin and Ansar. Abdullah Ibn Abas RA would speak and 'Umar would not disregard what he had to say." It is these qualities which resulted in Abdullah ibn Abbas RA being known as "the learned man of this 'Ummah".

Abdullah Ibn Abas RA was not content to accumulate knowledge. He felt he had a duty to the 'Ummah to educate those in search of knowledge and the general masses of the Muslim community.

Abdullah Ibn Abas RA turned to teaching and his house became a university in the full sense of the word, a university with specialized teaching. There was an enthusiastic response to Abdullah's classes. One of his companions described a typical scene in front of his house: "I saw people converging on the roads leading to his house until there was hardly any room in front of his house. I went in and told him about the crowds of people at his door and he said: 'Get me water for wudhu (ablution).'

Abdullah Ibn Abas RA performed wudhu and, seating himself, said: 'Go out and say to them: Whoever wants to ask about the Quran and its letters (pronunciation) let him enter.'

This I did and people entered until the house was filled. Whatever he was asked, Abdullah Ibn Abas RA was able to elucidate and even provide additional information to what was asked.

Then (to his students) he said: 'Make way for your brothers.'
Then to me he said: 'Go out and say: Who wants to ask about the Quran and its interpretation, let him enter.'

Again the house was filled and Abdullah Ibn Abas RA elucidated and provided more information than what was requested."


And so it continued with groups of people coming in to discuss fiqh (jurisprudence), halal and haram (the lawful and the prohibited in Islam), inheritance laws, Arabic language, poetry and etymology.

To avoid congestion with many groups of people coming to discuss various subjects on a single day, Abdullah Ibn Abas RA decided to devote one day exclusively for a particular discipline. On one day, only the exegesis of the Quran would be taught while on another day only fiqh (jurisprudence). The maghazi or campaigns of Rasulullah , poetry, Arab history before Islam were each allocated a special day.

Abdullah Ibn Abas RA brought to his teaching a powerful memory and a formidable intellect. His explanations were precise, clear and logical. His arguments were persuasive and supported by pertinent textual evidence and historical facts.

Saad ibn Abi Waqqas RA said: "I have not seen anyone possessing greater understanding, nor a keener intellect, nor having greater knowledge, nor possessing more gentleness than Ibn Abbas"
(from Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah, vol.8)

Abu Wail RA said: " Abdullah Ibn Abas RA addressed us when he was in charge of the Hajj (pilgrimage) and he began reciting the verse of Al-Nur and he recited and interpreted the verses I said I haven't heard the speech of a man such as this; if the Persians, the Romans and the Turks would have heard it, they would have embraced Islam"
(from Ansab-Ashraf, vol.3)

It is reported on the authority of Masruq that he said: "whenever I saw Abdullah Ibn Abas RA, I would say he is the handsomest of men; when he spoke I would say he is the most eloquent of men and when he gave a sermon I would say he is the most knowledgeable of men"

 During the early struggles for the caliphate, Abdullah ibn Abbas RA he supported Saidina Ali Ibn Abu Talib RA and was given the job of governor of Basra as a responsibility. Abdullah ibn Abbas RA did not stay long and he withdrew to Makkah. During the reign of Muawiyah I, Abdullah ibn Abbas RA lived in Hijaz and would travel to Damascus (Syam) often. After Muawiyah I died, he opposed Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr RA and fled to at-Ta'if, where he died in around 687 CE.

'Abdullah ibn Abbas RA was known for his knowledge of traditions as well as his critical interpretation of the Qur'an. From early on, he gathered information from other companions of Rasulullah and gave classes and wrote commentaries


Abdullah Ibn Abas RA and the king of Rome
The King of Rome (Caesar) wrote to Amir Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan RA asking about:
The Most Beloved speech to Allah, The All-Mighty, The All-Powerful?
The most honorable slave before Allah, The All-Mighty, The All-Powerful?
The most honorable female slave before Allah, The All-Mighty, The All-Powerful?
The four who possessed souls, but who had not come out of a womb?
A grave which had moved with its inhabitant?
A place on earth where the sun has not risen except once?
The Qaws Quzah and what it is?
Al-Majarrah?

Amir Muawiyah wrote to Abdullah Ibn Abas RA asking him about them. He (Abdullah Ibn Abas RA) wrote back:
1. As for the most beloved speech to Allah, it is “Subhan Allahi wal-Hamdu Lillahi, wa la ilaha Illalahu wallahu Akbar, wa La Hawla wa La Quwwata Illa Billah” (Glory be to Allah, all praise and thanks are to Allah, there is none worthy of worship except Allah, Allah is The Most Great, and there is no power and no strength except in Allah).

2. The most honorable of slaves before Allah is Adam, whom he created with His Hand, He breathed his spirit into him, He caused His angels to prostrate to him and He taught him the names of all things.

3. The most honorable of female slaves before Allah is Maryam (Mary), the daughter of Imran.

4. As for the 4 who did not develop in the womb, they are Adam, Eve, the staff of Moses (which changed to a serpent when it was thrown on the ground) and the ram of Ibrahim (peace be upon him), by which Ibrahim ransomed Ismael. (In another narration, it was said) the she-camel of Salih.

5. As for the grave which moved with its occupant, it is the whale which swallowed Yunus (Peace be upon him).

6. As for the place which has not been exposed to the sun except once, It is the place where the sea opened up for Moses, peace be upon him, so that the children of Israel could pass through it.

7. As for the Qaws Quzah, it is a protection for the inhabitants of the earth from drowning.

8. As for Al-Majarrah, it is a gate in the heaven.

When the King of Rome read this, he was very impressed and said “By Allah, it is not from Muawiyah, nor from his words, it is only from the family of Rasulullah SAW.
[Recorded in Ibn Katheer's Al-Bidayah Wan Nihayah]

During the caliphate of Saidina Ali RA, a large number of supporters his of in his stand against Muawiyah RA had just deserted him. Abdullah ibn Abbas RA went to Ali and requested permission to speak to them. Saidina Ali Ibn Abu Talib RA hesitated fearing that Abdullah Ibn Abas RA would be in danger at their hands but eventually gave way on Abdullah's optimism that nothing untoward would happen.

Abdullah Ibn Abas RA went over to the group. They were absorbed in worship. Some were not willing to let him speak but others were prepared to give him a hearing. "Tell me" asked Abdullah, "what grievances have you against the cousin of Rasulullah , the husband of his daughter and the first of those who believed in him?"

The men proceeded to relate three main complaints against Saidina Ali Ibn Abu Talib RA.

First, that he appointed men to pass judgment in matters pertaining to the religion of God - meaning that Ali had agreed to accept the arbitration of Abu Musa al-Ashari RA and Amr ibn al-As RA in the dispute with Muawiyah RA.
Secondly, that he fought and did not take booty nor prisoners of war.

Thirdly, that he did not insist on the title of Amir al-Mukminin during the arbitration process although the Muslims had pledged allegiance to him and he was their legitimate Amir.

To them this was obviously a sign of weakness and a sign that Saidina Ali Ibn Abu Talib RA was prepared to bring his legitimate position as Amir al-Mukminin into disrepute.

In reply, Abdullah Ibn Abas RA asked them that should he cite verses from the Quran and sayings of Rasulullah to which they had no objection and which related to their criticisms, would they be prepared to change their position. They replied that they would and Abdullah Ibn Abas RA proceeded:

"Regarding your statement that Saidina Ali RA has appointed men to pass judgment in matters pertaining to Allah's religion, Allah, Glorified and Exalted is He, says:
"O you who believe! Kill not game while in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb. If any of you do so intentionally, the compensation is an offering, of a domestic animal equivalent to the one he killed and adjudged by two just men among."

"I adjure you, by Allah! Is the adjudication by men in matters pertaining to the preservation of their blood and their lives and making peace between them more deserving of attention than adjudication over a rabbit whose value is only a quarter of a dirham?"

Their reply was of course that arbitration was more important in the case of preserving Muslim lives and making peace among them than over the killing of game in the sacred precincts for which Allah sanctioned arbitration by men. "Have we then finished with this point?" asked Abdullah Ibn Abas RA and their reply was: "Allahumma, naam - O Lord, yes!"

Abdullah Ibn Abas RA went on: "As for your statement that Saidina Ali RA fought and did not take prisoners of war as Rasulullah did, do you really desire to take your 'mother' Aisyah RA as a captive and treat her as fair game in the way that captives are treated? If your answer is 'yes', then you have fallen into kufr (disbelief). And if you say that she is not your 'mother', you would also have fallen into a state of kufr for Allah, Glorified and Exalted is He, has said:
“Rasulullah is closer to the believers than their own selves and his wives are their mothers (entitled to respect and consideration)." (Al-Quran 34:6)
"Choose for yourself what you want," said Abdullah Ibn Abas RA and then he asked: "Have we then finished with this point?"
And this time too their reply was: "Allahumma, naam - O Lord, yes!"

Abdullah Ibn Abas RA went on: "As for your statement that Saidina Ali RA has surrendered the title of Amir al-Mukminin, (remember) that Rasulullah himself, at the time of Hudaibiyah, demanded that the mushrikun write in the truce which he concluded with them: 'This is what Rasulullah has agreed ... ' and they retorted: 'If we believed that you were the Rasulullah we would not have blocked your way to the Kaabah nor would we have fought you. Write instead, 'Muhammad the son of Abdullah.' Rasulullah conceded their demand while saying, 'By Allah, I am Rasulullah even if they reject me.' “At this point Abdullah ibn Abbas RA asked the dissidents: "Have we then finished with this point?" And their reply was once again: "Allahumma, naam - O Lord, yes!".

One of the fruits of this verbal challenge, in which Abdullah Ibn Abas RA displayed his intimate knowledge of the Quran and the Sirah of Rasulullah as well as his remarkable powers of argument and persuasion, was that the majority, about twenty thousand men, returned to the ranks of Saidina Ali RA. About four thousand however remained obdurate. These later were known as the Khawarij.

The many battles of Abdullah Ibn Abas RA.

Abdullah Ibn Abas RA took part in many battles whether inside or outside the Arab peninsula. He fought in the conquest of Subaitilah, the battle of Tabaristan during the caliphate of Saidina Umar Ibn Al-Khattab RA. Abdullah Ibn Abas RA fought in the battle of the Camel and the battle of Siffin during the caliphate of Saidina Ali Ibn Abi Talib. He also took part in the battle against the Romans in the year 46 AH.

Abdullah Ibn Abas RA was not only known for his courage, his perceptive thought and his vast knowledge. Abdullah Ibn Abas RA was also known for his great generosity and hospitality.
Some of his contemporaries said of his household: "We have not seen a house which has more food or drink or fruit or knowledge than the house of Ibn Abbas."
Abdullah Ibn Abas RA had a genuine and abiding concern for people. He was thoughtful and caring.
Abdullah Ibn Abas RA once said: “When I realize the importance of a verse of God's Book, I would wish that all people should know what I know.
"When I hear of a Muslim ruler who deals equitably and rules justly, I am happy on his account and I pray for him ...
"When I hear of rains which fall on the land of Muslims, that fills me with happiness ...”

It is reported on the authority of Abdullah ibn Abi Mulaikah that he said:" I accompanied Ibn Abbas from Makkah to Madinah and whenever he stopped, he would stand for half of the night reciting the Quran and praising Allah much"
(from sifat Assafwah)

It is reported on the authority of Tawus that he used to say: "I have not seen anyone who used to honor the sacred ordinances of Allah, the All-Mighty and All-Powerful, more than Abdullah Ibn Abas RA. By Allah, if I wished to cry whenever I remember him, I could do so."
(from sifat Assafwah)

It is reported on the authority of Simak that the water in the eyes of Abdullah Ibn Abas RA had dried (i.e. tear ducts had dried) and he lost his sight, so the specialists told him that they can fix the problem but he has to stay for five days without praying. He refused and said: "No, by Allah, I will not leave one bow (Rahah); I have been informed that whoever abandoned even one prayer intentionally, he will meet Allah, the All-Mighty, the All-Powerful and find him angry with him"
(from sifat Assafwah)

Abdullah ibn Abbas RA kept voluntary fasts regularly and often stayed up at night in prayer. Abdullah Ibn Abas RA would weep while praying and reading the Quran. When reciting verses dealing with death, resurrection and the life hereafter his voice would be heavy from deep sobbing.

In the year 68 AH, he passed away at the age of seventy one in the mountainous city of Ta'if.


Selected hadiths narrated by and attributed to Abdullah ibn Abas RA.

Found In: Sahih Bukhari Chapter No: 1, Revelation
Hadith no: 6
Narrated: Ibn Abbas RA
Allah’s Apostle was the most generous of all the people and he used to reach the peak in generosity in the month of Ramadan when Gabriel met him. Gabriel used to meet him every night of Ramadan to teach him the Qur'an. Allah’s Apostle was the most generous person, even more generous than the strong uncontrollable wind (in readiness and haste to do charitable deeds).
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Found In: Sahih Bukhari Chapter No: 1, Revelation
Hadith no: 7 
Narrated: Abdullah bin Abbas RA
Abu Sufyan bin Harb informed me that Heraclius had sent a messenger to him while he had been accompanying a caravan from Quraish. They were merchants doing business in Sham (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon and Jordan), at the time when Allah’s Apostle had truce with Abu Sufyan and Quraish infidels. So Abu Sufyan and his companions went to Heraclius at Ilya (Jerusalem). Heraclius called them in the court and he had all the senior Roman dignitaries around him. He called for his translator who, translating Heraclius's question said to them, "Who amongst you is closely related to that man who claims to be a Prophet?" Abu Sufyan replied, "I am the nearest relative to him (amongst the group)." Heraclius said, "Bring him (Abu Sufyan) close to me and make his companions stand behind him." Abu Sufyan added, Heraclius told his translator to tell my companions that he wanted to put some questions to me regarding that man (The Prophet) and that if I told a lie they (my companions) should contradict me." Abu Sufyan added, "By Allah! Had I not been afraid of my companions labeling me a liar, I would not have spoken the truth about the Prophet. The first question he asked me about him was: 'What is his family status amongst you?' I replied, 'He belongs to a good (noble) family amongst us.' Heraclius further asked, 'Has anybody amongst you ever claimed the same (i.e. to be a Prophet) before him?' I replied, 'No.' He said, 'Was anybody amongst his ancestors a king?' I replied, 'No.' Heraclius asked, 'Do the nobles or the poor follow him?' I replied, 'It is the poor who follow him.' He said, 'Are his followers increasing decreasing (day by day)?' I replied, 'They are increasing.' He then asked, 'Does anybody amongst those who embrace his religion become displeased and renounce the religion afterwards?' I replied, 'No.' Heraclius said, 'Have you ever accused him of telling lies before his claim (to be a Prophet)?' I replied, 'No. ‘Heraclius said, 'Does he break his promises?' I replied, 'No. We are at truce with him but we do not know what he will do in it.' I could not find opportunity to say anything against him except that. Heraclius asked, 'Have you ever had a war with him?' I replied, 'Yes.' Then he said, 'What was the outcome of the battles?' I replied, 'Sometimes he was victorious and sometimes we.' Heraclius said, 'What does he order you to do?' I said, 'He tells us to worship Allah and Allah alone and not to worship anything along with Him, and to renounce all that our ancestors had said. He orders us to pray, to speak the truth, to be chaste and to keep good relations with our Kith and kin.' Heraclius asked the translator to convey to me the following, I asked you about his family and your reply was that he belonged to a very noble family. In fact all the Apostles come from noble families amongst their respective peoples. I questioned you whether anybody else amongst you claimed such a thing, your reply was in the negative. If the answer had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man was following the previous man's statement. Then I asked you whether anyone of his ancestors was a king. Your reply was in the negative, and if it had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man wanted to take back his ancestral kingdom. I further asked whether he was ever accused of telling lies before he said what he said, and your reply was in the negative. So I wondered how a person who does not tell a lie about others could ever tell a lie about Allah. I, then asked you whether the rich people followed him or the poor. You replied that it was the poor who followed him. And in fact the entire Apostle has been followed by this very class of people. Then I asked you whether his followers were increasing or decreasing. You replied that they were increasing, and in fact this is the way of true faith, till it is complete in all respects. I further asked you whether there was anybody, who, after embracing his religion, became displeased and discarded his religion. Your reply was in the negative, and in fact this is (the sign of) true faith, when its delight enters the hearts and mixes with them completely. I asked you whether he had ever betrayed. You replied in the negative and likewise the Apostles never betray. Then I asked you what he ordered you to do. You replied that he ordered you to worship Allah and Allah alone and not to worship anything along with Him and forbade you to worship idols and ordered you to pray, to speak the truth and to be chaste. If what you have said is true, he will very soon occupy this place underneath my feet and I knew it (from the scriptures) that he was going to appear but I did not know that he would be from you, and if I could reach him definitely, I would go immediately to meet him and if I were with him, I would certainly wash his feet.' Heraclius then asked for the letter addressed by Allah’s Apostle which was delivered by Dihya to the Governor of Busra, who forwarded it to Heraclius to read. The contents of the letter were as follows: "In the name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful (This letter is) from Muhammad the slave of Allah and His Apostle to Heraclius the ruler of Byzantine. Peace be upon him, who follows the right path. Furthermore I invite you to Islam, and if you become a Muslim you will be safe, and Allah will double your reward, and if you reject this invitation of Islam you will be committing a sin by misguiding your Arisiyin (peasants). (And I recite to you Allah’s Statement:)
“O people of the scripture! Come to a word common to you and us that we worship none but Allah and that we associate nothing in worship with Him, and that none of us shall take others as Lords beside Allah. Then, if they turn away, say: Bear witness that we are Muslims (those who have surrendered to Allah).' (3:64).
Abu Sufyan then added, "When Heraclius had finished his speech and had read the letter, there was a great hue and cry in the Royal Court. So we were turned out of the court. I told my companions that the question of ibn-Abi-Kabsha) (the Prophet Muhammad) has become so prominent that even the King of Bani Al-Asfar (Byzantine) is afraid of him. Then I started to become sure that he (the Prophet) would be the conqueror in the near future till I embraced Islam (i.e. Allah guided me to it)." The sub narrator adds, "ibn An-Natur was the Governor of llya' (Jerusalem) and Heraclius was the head of the Christians of Sham. Ibn An-Natur narrates that once while Heraclius was visiting Ilya' (Jerusalem), he got up in the morning with a sad mood. Some of his priests asked him why he was in that mood. Heraclius was a foreteller and an astrologer. He replied, 'at night when I looked at the stars, I saw that the leader of those who practice circumcision had appeared (become the conqueror). Who are they who practice circumcision?' The people replied, 'Except the Jews nobody practices circumcision, so you should not be afraid of them (Jews). 'Just Issue orders to kill every Jew present in the country.' While they were discussing it, a messenger sent by the king of Ghassan to convey the news of Allah’s Apostle to Heraclius was brought in. Having heard the news, he (Heraclius) ordered the people to go and see whether the messenger of Ghassan was circumcised. The people, after seeing him, told Heraclius that he was circumcised. Heraclius then asked him about the Arabs. The messenger replied, 'Arabs also practice circumcision.' (After hearing that) Heraclius remarked that sovereignty of the 'Arabs had appeared. Heraclius then wrote a letter to his friend in Rome who was as good as Heraclius in knowledge. Heraclius then left for Homs. (A town in Syrian and stayed there till he received the reply of his letter from his friend who agreed with him in his opinion about the emergence of the Prophet and the fact that he was a Prophet. On that Heraclius invited all the heads of the Byzantines to assemble in his palace at Homs. When they assembled, he ordered that all the doors of his palace be closed. Then he came out and said, 'O Byzantines! If success is your desire and if you seek right guidance and want your empire to remain then give a pledge of allegiance to this Prophet (i.e. embrace Islam).' (On hearing the views of Heraclius) the people ran towards the gates of the palace like onagers but found the doors closed. Heraclius realized their hatred towards Islam and when he lost the hope of their embracing Islam, he ordered that they should be brought back in audience. (When they returned) he said, 'What already said was just to test the strength of your conviction and I have seen it.' The people prostrated before him and became pleased with him, and this was the end of Heraclius's story (in connection with his faith).
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Found In: Sahih Bukhari Chapter No: 2, Belief
Hadith no: 29 
Narrated: Ibn Abbas
The Prophet said: "I was shown the Hell-fire and that the majority of its dwellers were women who were ungrateful." It was asked, "Do they disbelieve in allah?" (or are they ungrateful to allah?) He replied, "They are ungrateful to their husbands and are ungrateful for the favors and the good (charitable deeds) done to them. If you have always been good (benevolent) to one of them and then she sees something in you (not of her liking), she will say, 'I have never received any good from you."
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Found In: Sahih Bukhari Chapter No: 3, Knowledge
Hadith no: 64  
Narrated: Abdullah bin Abbas
Once Allah’s Apostle gave a letter to a person and ordered him to go and deliver it to the Governor of Bahrain. (He did so) and the Governor of Bahrain sent it to Chosroes, who read that letter and then tore it to pieces. (The sub-narrator (ibn Shihab) thinks that ibn Al-Musayb said that Allah’s Apostle invoked Allah against them (saying), "May Allah tear them into pieces, and disperse them all totally.)"
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Found In: Sahih Bukhari Chapter No: 3, Knowledge
Hadith no: 74 
Narrated: Ibn Abbas
That he differed with Hur bin Qais bin Hisn Al-Fazari regarding the companion of (the Prophet) Moses. ibn 'Abbas said that he was Khadir. Meanwhile, Ubai bin Ka'b passed by them and ibn 'Abbas called him, saying "My friend (Hur) and I have differed regarding Moses' companion whom Moses, asked the way to meet. Have you heard the Prophet mentioning something about him? He said, "Yes. I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, "While Moses was sitting in the company of some Israelites, a man came and asked him. "Do you know anyone who is more learned than you? Moses replied: "No." So Allah sent the Divine Inspiration to Moses:
“Yes, Our slave Khadir (is more learned than you.)' Moses asked (Allah) how to meet him (Khadir). So Allah made the fish as a sign for him and he was told that when the fish was lost, he should return (to the place where he had lost it) and there he would meet him (Al-Khadir). So Moses went on looking for the sign of the fish in the sea. The servant-boy of Moses said to him: Do you remember when we betook ourselves to the rock, I indeed forgot the fish, none but Satan made me forget to remember it. On that Moses said: 'That is what we have been seeking? (18.64)
 So they went back retracing their foot-steps, and found Khadir. (And) what happened further to them is narrated in the Holy Qur'an by Allah. (18.54 up to 18.82)
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Found In: Sahih Bukhari Chapter No: 3, Knowledge
Hadith no: 75
Narrated: Ibn Abbas
Once the Prophet embraced me and said, "O Allah! Bestow on him the knowledge of the Book (Qur'an)."
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Found In: Sahih Bukhari Chapter No: 3, Knowledge
Hadith no: 76
Narrated: Ibn Abbas
Once I came riding a she-ass and had (just) attained the age of puberty. Allah’s Apostle was offering the prayer at Mina. There was no wall in front of him and I passed in front of some of the row while they were offering their prayers. There I let the she-ass loose to graze and entered the row, and nobody objected to it.
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Found In: Sahih Bukhari Chapter No: 3, Knowledge
Hadith no: 78 
Narrated: Ibn Abbas
That he differed with Hur bin Qais bin Hisn Al-Fazari regarding the companion of the Prophet Moses. Meanwhile, Ubai bin Ka'b passed by them and ibn 'Abbas called him saying, "My friend (Hur) and I have differed regarding Moses' companion whom Moses asked the way to meet. Have you heard Allah’s Apostle mentioning something about him? Ubai bin Ka'b said: "Yes, I heard the Prophet mentioning something about him (saying) while Moses was sitting in the company of some Israelites, a man came and asked him: "Do you know anyone who is more learned than you?
Moses replied:
"No." So Allah sent the Divine Inspiration to Moses: '--Yes, Our slave Khadir is more learned than you. Moses asked Allah how to meet him (Al-Khadir). So Allah made the fish a sign for him and he was told when the fish was lost, he should return (to the place where he had lost it) and there he would meet him (Al-Khadir). So Moses went on looking for the sign of the fish in the sea. The servant-boy of Moses said: 'Do you remember when we betook ourselves to the rock, I indeed forgot the fish, none but Satan made me forget to remember it. On that Moses said, 'That is what we have been seeking.' So they went back retracing their footsteps, and found Khadir. (And) what happened further about them is narrated in the Holy Qur'an by Allah."
(18.54 up to 18.82)
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Found In: Sahih Bukhari Chapter No: 3, Knowledge
Hadith no: 97 
Narrated: Ibn Abbas
Once Allah’s Apostle came out while Bilal was accompanying him. He went towards the women thinking that they had not heard him (i.e. his sermon). So he preached them and ordered them to pay alms. (Hearing that) the women started giving alms; some donated their ear-rings, some gave their rings and Bilal was collecting them in the corner of his garment.
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Found In: Sahih Bukhari Chapter No: 4, Ablutions (Wudu')
Hadith no: 145 
Narrated: Ibn Abbas
Once the Prophet entered a lavatory and I placed water for his ablution. He asked, "Who placed it?" He was informed accordingly and so he said, "O Allah! Make him (ibn 'Abbas) a learned scholar in religion (Islam)."
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Found In: Sahih Bukhari Chapter No: 4, Ablutions (Wudu')
Hadith no: 206 
Narrated: Abdullah bin Abbas
Allah’s Apostle ate a piece of cooked mutton from the shoulder region and prayed without repeating ablution.
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Found In: Sahih Bukhari Chapter No: 4, Ablutions (Wudu')
Hadith no: 210 
Narrated: Ibn Abbas
Allah’s Apostle drank milk, rinsed his mouth and said, "It has fat."
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Found In: Sahih Bukhari Chapter No: 4, Ablutions (Wudu')
Hadith no: 217 
Narrated: Ibn Abbas
The Prophet once passed by two graves and said, "These two persons are being tortured not for a major sin (to avoid). One of them never saved himself from being soiled with his urine, while the other used to go about with calumnies (to make enmity between friends)." The Prophet then took a green leaf of a date-palm tree, split it into (pieces) and fixed one on each grave. They said, "O Allah’s Apostle! Why have you done so?" He replied, "I hope that their punishment might be lessened till these (the pieces of the leaf) become dry." (See the foot-note of Hadith 215).
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And many more hadiths…from Abdullah Ibn Abas RA.


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