Tuesday

Abu Fuhayra RA


Amir ibn Fuhayra RA  or also known as Abu Fuhayra RA(عامر بن فهيرة) (586-625) was a companion of Rasulullah . He was also known by the kunya Abu 'Amr.

Abu Fuhayra RA are of African ancestry, he was born a slave in the possession of the Azd tribe. Later Abu Fuhayra RA was owned by Al-Tufayl ibn Al-Harith, the stepson of Saidina Abu Bakr RA, who was also a member of this tribe but probably younger than Amir.

Abu Fuhayra RA became a Muslim in Makkah before 614.From the year 614 he was tortured in Makkah in an attempt to force him to recant his faith.His persecutor is not directly named; but the persecution stopped when Saidina Abu Bakr RA bought him from Al-Tufayl and manumitted him. As was usual for freed slaves, Abu Fuhayra RA remained in Abu Bakr's service and had the special care of grazing his milking ewe.

 

Abu Fuhayra RA hijra to Madinah.
When Saidina Abu Bakr RA and Rasulullah escaped from Makkah in 622, Abu Fuhayra RA grazed Saidina Abu Bakr's flocks by day, then brought them at evening to the cave where Saidina Abu Bakr RA and Rasulullah were hiding, presumably so that the sheep would cover their tracks. When they left the cave to travel to Madinah, Abu Fuhayra RA accompanied them.
At first Abu Fuhayra RA stayed with Saad ibn Khaythama in Madinah but he later returned to Saidina Abu Bakr's house. Rasulullah made a pact of brotherhood between Abu Fuhayra RA and Al-Harith ibn Aws ibn Muadh. Soon after their arrival, Abu Fuhayra RA, Saidina Abu Bakr and Bilal Ibn Rabah RA were all struck by Madinah fever. When the young Sayidah Aisyah RA came to inquire after their health, Abu Fuhayra RA replied, apparently rambling:
I have experienced death before actually tasting it:
“The coward’s death comes upon him as he sits. Every man resists it with all his might like the ox who protects his body with his horns”.
Abu Fuhayra RA fought at the battles of Badr and Uhud.


Abu Fuhayra RA participated in the Battle of Bir Mauna in July or August 625. When he was stabbed by Jabbar in Sulma from the Kalb tribe, he exclaimed, "I have been successful, by Allah!" Abu Fuhayra RA was among the first to die in the battle. Urwa RA reported that his body was never found, for "the angels had buried him" and he was raised directly to Heaven. Later Jabbar asked what Abu Fuhayra RA had meant by saying, "I have won." When he was told that Abu Fuhayra RA had gained Paradise, Jabbar also became a Muslim.

Rasulullah also told the Sahaba about one specific Sahabi, Amir ibn Fuhayra or Abu Fuhayra RA.
Abu Fuhayra RA was a former slave who was freed by Saidina Abu Bakr RA. Abu Fuhayra RA had assisted Rasulullah and  Saidina Abu Bakr RA on their Hijra, and he was considered a high-ranking Sahabi from his community

Some narrations mention that someone specifically asked about Abu Fuhayra RA other narration say that Rasulullah told them, “During the massacre, Abu Fuhayra RA was stabbed in the back. Abu Fuhayra RA reached his hand toward the wound on his back and when he drew his hand, it was soaked with blood. Abu Fuhayra RA marked his head with his blood, and said, ‘I swear by Allah, I am successful. I have been killed for the sake of the deen of Allah. I have lost my life preaching and calling people towards the Oneness of Allah and the Book of Allah. By Allah, I am successful.”
On the Day of Judgment, all the syuhadah will be raised with their wounds fresh as an honor to them. Abu Fuhayra RA stained himself with his blood so that it will be visible on the Day of Judgment.
Afterwards, Jabbar asked someone, “When we were massacring the people of Rasulullah , I stabbed one of the Muslims. When I stabbed him, he swore by God, and he said, ‘I have succeeded.’ What does that mean? I don’t understand.”
The person answered, “He was saying that he attained Paradise.”
Jabbar was very affected by this. He said, “You know, there’s something to what this man is saying.”
After some time, Jabbar accepted Islam because of this
After Amir ibn Fuhayra or Abu Fuhayra RA was killed, Amir ibn At-Tufayl wanted to desecrate mutilate the Sahabi’s body


Amir ibn At-Tufayl was going around the field asking, “Where is the freed slave of Abu Bakr?”
In the time of the Sahaba, whenever a Sahabi freed a slave, the freed person would basically become a part of the Sahabi’s family. They would be helped on their feet  and  become a close member of the person’s family
That’s why Saidina Abu Bakr RA trusted Abu Fuhayra RA in aiding him and Rasulullah during their migration to Madinah
Amir ibn At-Tufayl wanted to further insult Rasulullah by insulting Saidina Abu Bakr RA, because Amir knew that Abu Bakr meant a lot to Rasulullah After the massacre, Amir went around asking, “I know that the freed slave of Abu Bakr is here. Where is he?”
Some narrations mention that Amir ibn At-Tufayl couldn’t find Abu Fuhayra’s body anywhere
Other narrations mention that when he looked up, Amir ibn At-Tufayl saw that Abu Fuhayra’s body was lifted up into the sky by angels, who were protecting the Sahabi’s body from the grasp of the evil man
After all of this happened, the one injured man from the massacre (Ka’b ibn al-Zayd) made his way back to Madinah.

About Abu  Fuhayra RA
Roles and Function during the migration of Rasulullah
The first 3 Days in the Cave.
Our beloved Rasulullah , who entered the cave of Thur on Thursday night with Saidina Abu Bakr RA, stayed in the cave on Thursday, Friday and Saturday nights. They stayed in the cave for three days and nights as a precaution. During this period, the polytheists would think that they had left Makkah and would loosen the search. And it happened like that. 
During the period when they hid in the cave, upon the instruction of Rasulullah , Abdullah, the son of Saidina Abu Bakr RA, walked among the Quraishis during the day and found out what they were talking and thinking about; at night, he went to the cave and told the Rasulullah   what he had heard. He stayed in the cave and returned to Makkah at dawn.
Meanwhile, Amir b. Fuhayra RA , the slave of Saidina Abu Bakr RA, were herding sheep nearby and erasing the tracks of Abdullah; he also took some milk to them.
Thus, three days and nights passed. The search of the Quraishis for Rasulullah  and Saidina Abu Bakr RA had loosened. That was the news brought by Abdullah Ibn Saidina Abu Bakr RA.
Meanwhile, as they had agreed beforehand, Abdullah b. Urayqit arrived at the foot of the Thaur Mount with the two camels delivered to him beforehand and his own camel on Monday morning at dawn.

Incident of Bi‘r-e-Ma‘unah

The acts of mischief and seditious behavior perpetrated by the tribes of Sulaim, and Ghaṭafan, etc. have already been mentioned above. These tribes inhabited the central region of Arabia in the Satḥ e-Murtafa‘ Najd and had allied with the Quraish of Makkah against the Muslims. Slowly but surely, the evil of these mischievous tribes was continuing to grow and the Satḥ-e-Murtafa‘ Najd was continuing to be poisoned with the venom of enmity against Islam. As such, in the days we are describing now, an individual named Abu Barra’ ‘Amiri, who was a chieftain of the tribe situated in central Arabia known as the Banu ‘Amir, presented himself before the Holy Prophet in order to meet him. Rasulullah  very gently and kindly conveyed the message of Islam to him and at the outset he also listened to the address of Rasulullah  with interest and attention, but did not accept Islam. Albeit, he submitted Rasulullah , “Send a few Companions along with me to Najd, who can travel there and preach the message of Islam to the people of Najd. I am confident that the people of Najd will not reject your message.” Rasulullah  said, “I do not trust the people of Najd.” Abu Barra’ responded, “Do not worry, I guarantee their security.”


Since Abu Barra’ was the chief of a tribe and was an influential man, Rasulullah  took his word and dispatched a party of Companions towards Najd. This is the narration as it is related by history. It is narrated in Bukhari that a few people from the tribes of Ri‘l and Dhakwan, etc. (which were branches of the renowned tribe known as the Banu Sulaim) presented themselves before Rasulullah  and claimed to accept Islam. Then they requested that a few men should be dispatched along with them to assist them against those people of their nation who were enemies of Islam (there is no elaboration as to the nature of the assistance they requested – missionary or military). Upon this, Rasulullah  sent off this company. Ibni Sa‘d has also recorded a narration in support of this, but has not given it preference over the other one.

However, unfortunately with respect to the details of Bi‘r-e-Ma‘unah, even the details as narrated in Bukhari have become mixed to a degree, due to which all the relevant facts cannot be identified in full.

In any case, however, what is ascertained for certain is that on this occasion, the people belonging to the tribes of Ri‘l and Dhakwan, etc. presented themselves before Rasulullah  as well, and they requested for a few Companions to be sent along with them. One prospect for the reconciliation of both these narrations is that perhaps Abu Barra’ ‘Amiri, chieftain of the ‘Amir tribe, also came along with the people of Ri‘l and Dhakwan, and he spoke to Rasulullah  on their behalf. As such, according to the historical account, Rasulullah said, “I do not trust the people of Najd,” to which he responded, “Do not worry, I give you the assurance that your Companions shall not be harmed.” This indicates that the people of Ri‘l and Dhakwan had also come with Abu Barra’ and Rasulullah was concerned on their account. In any case, Rasulullah dispatched a party of Companions under the leadership of Mundhir bin ‘Amr Anṣari in Ṣafar 4 A.H.


These people were mostly from the Anṣar and totalled seventy in number, and almost all of them were Qaris, i.e., they were well-versed in the Holy Qur’an. They would collect wood from the jungle by day to make ends meet and would spend a better part of the night in worship. When these people reached a place known as Bi‘r-e-Ma‘unah, which was named as such due to a water well, an individual named Ḥaram bin Milḥan, who was the maternal uncle of Anas bin Malik, went forward with the message of Islam to ‘Amir bin Ṭufail, who was chief of the ‘Amir tribe and paternal nephew of Abu Barra’ ‘Amiri. The rest of the Companions remained behind. When Ḥaram bin Milḥan arrived to meet ‘Amir bin Ṭufail and his followers as an emissary of Rasulullah , at first, they warmly welcomed him in their hypocrisy; but after he had been fully seated and made to feel at ease, and began to preach the message of Islam, a few evil ones from among them made a signal to someone, who struck this innocent emissary with a spear from behind and put him to death there and then. At the time, the following words were on the tongue of Ḥaram bin Milḥan i.e., “Allah is the Greatest. By the Lord of the Ka‘bah, I have attained my objective.” ‘Amir bin Ṭufail did not suffice upon the murder of this emissary of Rasulullah alone.


As a matter of fact, after this he incited the people of his tribe, the Banu ‘Amir, to attack the remaining party of Muslims as well, but they refused and said that they would not attack the Muslims due to the guarantee of Abu Barra’. Upon this, ‘Amir collected the Banu Ri‘l, Dhakwan and ‘Uṣayyah, etc. from the tribe of Sulaim (i.e., the same tribes who had come to Rasulullah as a delegation according to the narration of Bukhari) and attacked this small and helpless community of Muslims. When the Muslims saw these bloodthirsty beasts racing towards them, they said, “We have no quarrel with you. We have only come with an assignment from Rasulullah we have not come to fight,” but they did not listen to a word and murdered them all. Among the Companions who were present at the time, only one individual was spared, who had a limp, and had managed to climb to the top of a mountain. The name of this Companion was Ka‘b bin Zaid. From various narrations it is ascertained that the disbelievers attacked him as well, due to which he was wounded.

The disbelievers left him for dead, but in actuality there was still life in him and he survived. Two individuals from among this community of Companions had separated from the group at the time in order to graze their camels, etc., and their names were ‘Amr bin Umayyah Ḍamri and Mundhir bin Muḥammad. When they looked towards their camp, lo and behold, they sighted flocks of birds flying about overhead. They understood these desert signs well and immediately deduced that a battle had taken place. When they returned, this atrocity of carnage and massacre perpetrated by the ruthless disbelievers lay before their eyes. Upon sighting this scene from afar, they consulted one another as to what should be done. One suggested that they should escape immediately and reach Madinah in order to inform Rasulullah . The other one, however, did not accept this proposal and said, “I shall not flee from where our Amir, Mundhir bin ‘Amr has been martyred.” Hence, he proceeded forward and was martyred in battle. The other, whose name was ‘Amr bin Umayyah Ḍamri was taken captive by the disbelievers.

They would have perhaps murdered him as well, but when they found out that he was from the Muḍar tribe, according to the custom of Arabia, ‘Amir bin Ṭufail cut off his forelocks and set him free, saying, “My mother has vowed to release a slave from the Muḍar tribe, and therefore, I set you free.” In other words, from among these seventy Companions, only two survived. One was this very ‘Amr bin Umayyah Ḍamri and the second was Ka‘b bin Zaid, who the disbelievers had left in the belief that he was already dead. ‘Amir bin Fuhayrah, the freed slave of Saidina  Abu Bakr RA, and a pioneer devotee of Islam, was also among the Companions who were martyred in the incident of Bi‘r-e-Ma‘unah. He was slain by a person named Jabbar bin Salamah. Afterwards, Jabbar became a Muslim and states that the reason for his having accepted Islam was because when he martyred ‘Amir bin Fuhayrah, he uncontrollably called out, i.e., “By God, I have attained my objective.” Jabbar states:

“Upon hearing these words, I was astonished that I have just murdered this person and he says that he has attained his objective. What a peculiar thing indeed. As such, when I later inquired as to the reason for this, I was informed that the Muslim people considered the sacrifice of their lives in the way of God as being the greatest success a person can attain. This left such a lasting impression upon my disposition that ultimately, this very influence pulled me towards Islam.”

Rasulullah and his Companions received news of the incidents of Raji‘ and Bi‘r-e-Ma‘unah at more or less the same time Rasulullah was deeply grieved by these incidents, to the extent that narrations relate that Rasulullah was never so deeply grieved by anything before or after these events. 

Undoubtedly, for approximately eighty Companions to be suddenly murdered by deception, especially such Companions who were Ḥuffaẓ of the Holy Qur’an, and were from a poor and selfless class of people, was no small event, even by standards of the barbaric customs and practices of Arabia. For Rasulullah personally, this news was no different than the loss of eighty sons, rather, even more so. The reason being that for a spiritual man, spiritual bonds are far dearer to him than the worldly relations of a worldly man. Hence, Rasulullah was deeply grieved by these tragic events, but in any case, Islam teaches patience. After this, Rasulullah said the following words:
       
“This is a result of the action of Abi Barra’, for I had disliked sending off these people and was apprehensive of the people of Najd.” The incidents of Bi‘r-e-Ma‘unah and Raji‘ demonstrate the intense level of hatred and animosity which the tribes of Arabia harboured in their hearts against Islam and the followers of Islam, to the extent that they would not even refrain from the most despicable lies, treachery and deceit. Despite the remarkable intelligence and vigilance of the Muslims, due to their thinking well of others, which is the hallmark of a believer, at times they would be lured into their trap. These were Ḥuffaẓ of the Qur’an and devoted worshippers, who would supplicate during the nights, sit in a corner of the mosque and remember Allah; then they were poor and hunger-stricken people, who were lured out of their homeland by these cruel disbelievers with the excuse of ‘teaching them religion’; and when they had reached their land as guests, they were murdered in cold blood. Any level of grief suffered by Rasulullah would not have been enough.

 But at the time, Rasulullah did not employ any military action against these cold blooded murderers. Albeit, for thirty days continuously, after having received this news, Rasulullah supplicated while standing in his morning Ṣalat, weeping and crying before God, individually naming the tribes of Ri‘l, Dhakwan, ‘Usayyah and the Banu Laḥyan in the following words:

“O Our Master! Have mercy upon us and hold back the hands of the enemies of Islam who are ruthlessly and stone-heartedly spilling the blood of innocent Muslims with the intention that Your religion may be expunged.” 

Credit to Bashir Aḥmad M.A







Wednesday

Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA


Long before Florence Nightingale, there was Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA (born 620 AD).
"Like Nightingale, Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA set up a training school for nurses, developed the first code of conduct and ethics, and was a promoter of community health. She cared for patients in a tent erected outside the Rasulullah s mosque and led nurses in caring for the wounded during the time of the Holy Wars. The history of Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA and other nurses at this time is recorded in the Sunnah, the record of the traditions, sayings and actions of Rasulullah .

Illustration Only : Saidatuna Rufaida Al Aslamy RA
Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA and also known as Rufaydah bint Sa`ad) (Arabic: رفيدة الأسلمية‎‎) was an Islamic medical and social worker recognized as the first female Muslim nurse and the first female surgeon in Islam.
Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA was among the first people in Madinah to accept Islam. Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA was born into the Banu Aslam tribe of the Khazraj tribal confederation in Madinah, and initially gained fame for her contribution with other Ansar women who welcomed Rasulullah on arrival in Madinah.

Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA is depicted as a kind, empathetic nurse and a good organizer. With her clinical skills, she trained other women. Including the famous female companions of Rasulullah - Saidatuna Khadijah RA, Saidatuna Aisyah RA, to be nurses and to work in the area of health care. Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA also worked as a social worker, helping to solve social problems associated with the disease. In addition, she helped children in need and took care of orphans, handicapped and the poor.



Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA were born into a family with strong ties to the medical community, Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA's father, Sa`ad Al Aslamy RA, was a physician and mentor under whom Rufaida Aslamia RA initially obtained clinical experience. Devoting herself to nursing and taking care of sick people, Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA became an expert healer. Although not given responsibilities held solely by men such as surgeries and amputations, Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA practiced her skills in field hospitals in her tent during many battles as Rasulullah used to order all casualties to be carried to her tent so that she might treat them with medical expertise. It has also been documented that Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA provided care to injured soldiers during the jihad (holy wars), as well as providing shelter from the wind and heat of the harsh desert for the dying.





Pre-Islamic and Islamic Era (570–632 AD)
Typically presented within the context of Rasulullah , the historical development of female nursing and surgery in Arabia from the Islamic Period to the modern times boats a tumultuous history laden with cultural barriers and public pressure. Though very sparse documentation exists pertaining to the history of nursing in the Pre-Islamic period, a proper understanding of societal and religious paradigms during the reign of Rasulullah lends significant insight into the roles and expectation of nurses in antiquity. In marked contrast to the pervading Christian interpretation of disease as a divine punishment for man, Muslims place an extremely high value on the ritual cleansing of the body, daily prayer schedules, and strict dietary regiments. An era in history defined by a number of holy wars, medicinal treatment during the times of Rasulullah  was largely performed solely by doctors, who would personally visit the patient to diagnose abnormalities and provide medications to those who were in need. Placing the bulk of the biological and physiological responsibilities of a patient on the doctor alone, nurses were limited in their duties to providing physical comfort and emotional support.

Front door of ancient hospital of Salé in Morocco designed by Islamic architects and managed by ancient Islamic physicians.


Post-Prophetic to Middle Ages Era (632–1500 AD)
With the diminishing intensity of holy wars and mass civil unrest that defined the climate of Islamic culture during the reign of Rasulullah , advancements in technology and architecture resulted in the construction of many new hospitals and methods for treating the sick. Though nurses in this period of time were still relegated to rudimentary and noninvasive duties like serving food to patients and administering medicinal liquids, religious and social norms of the times necessitated the segregation of hospital wards based on gender, with males treating males and females treating females.While there has been some relaxation of segregation in contemporary times, the values of many traditional Islamic people are for hospitals and their policies to reflect these past segregation practice.

Revolutions In Nursing Development.
Rufaida Al-Aslamia's - Emergence as Nursing Leader.
Though still highly limited in the invasiveness of their work, a shift in widely accepted cultural expectoration's regarding a woman's role in the hospital provided many the opportunity to emerge as leaders in a field previously dominated solely by men. A charismatic and capable leader, published records testify that Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA, who practiced at the time Muhammad, was the first Muslim nurse.]While there is slight controversy in who is "technically" the first surgeon and nurse in history, Middle Eastern countries attribute the status of the first ever nurse to Rufaida, a Muslim surgeon and nurse.

Origin of Intensive Care Unit or Acute Care.
Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA implemented her clinical skills and medical experience into developing the first ever documented mobile care units that were able to meet the medical needs of the community. The scope of the majority of her work in her organized medical command units consisted primarily in hygiene and stabilizing patients prior to further and more invasive medical procedures. During military expeditions, Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA led groups of volunteer nurses who went to the battlefield and treated the casualties. She participated in the battles of Badr, Uhud, Khandaq, Khaibar, and others.
The Mosque at Salman, location of the Battle of The Trench where Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA treated injured.
During times of peace, Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA continued her involvement with humanitarian efforts by providing assistance to Muslims who were in need.
The Legacy of Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA
Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA had trained a group of women companions as nurses. When Rasulullah 's army was getting ready to go to the battle of Khaibar (battle of the trench), Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA and the group of volunteer nurses went to Rasulullah . They asked him for permission "O Rasul of Allah, we want to go out with you to the battle and treat the injured and help Muslims as much as we can". Rasulullah gave them permission to go. The nurse volunteers did such a good job that Rasulullah assigned a share of the booty to Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA. Her share was equivalent to that of soldiers who had actually fought. This was in recognition of her medical and nursing work.
 
The 1st Hospital well organised administration
in the world - Sale' Hospital in Morocco. The remain
of the door panel and entrance of the hospital
design by Islamic Architect and manage
by the doctors and surgeon. 
Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA - Award in Nursing.
Each year the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland at the University of Bahrain awards one student the coveted and prestigious Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA Prize in Nursing. The award winner determined by a panel of senior clinical medical staff members, the Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA Prize in Nursing is given to the student who consistently excels in delivering superb nursing care to patients.

Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA developed the first ever documented mobile units’ health care. That was able to meet the medical needs of the community. The founder of first School of Nursing in Islamic world.
Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA advocated for preventative care and recognized the importance of health education. She also became involved in social work within the community. The Rasulullah gave her permission to erect a tent within a mosque and deliver health-related teachings to the community.
During military expeditions, Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA led groups of volunteer nurses who went to the battlefield and treated the casualties. She participated in the battles of Badr, Uhud, Khandaq, Khaibar, and others.

RUFAIDA AL-ASLAMIA رفيدة الأسلمية – 1st  CENTURY – MEDINA, SAUDI ARABIA
Embroidered portrait of Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA, head and shoulders. She is staring straight ahead and wearing a blue and white hijab.
Rufaida Al-Aslamia is considered the first Muslim nurse and social worker. Born in Madinah sometime in the 7th century, Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA’s family were among the first to have converted to Islam and it is said that she knew Rasulullah personally.

Her father was a physician by trade, and taught his daughter the skills needed to care for the sick and wounded. At a time in history defined by a number of holy wars, Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA’s help was invaluable on the battlefield, and she cut her teeth in desert field hospitals.

Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA’s was also an excellent organizer and clearly a charismatic personality – in the highly male dominated field of medicine she was able to flourish and thrive. She trained other women in nursing, and introduced the first documented mobile care units which aimed to stabilize the wounded after battles and prepare them for further procedures.

Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA’s team of volunteer nurses were so successful that following one battle Rasulullah ensured that she receive the same portion of war booty due to soldier who had fought – one of the earliest examples of equal pay

In addition to her role in battlefield healthcare, Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA’s was interested in disease and its causes among ordinary people. She is recorded as having personally worked in poor communities encouraging hygiene and attempting to alleviate social problems which led to poor health.

In Islam, nurses provide healthcare services to patients, families and communities as a manifestation of love for Allah and Rasulullah . The nursing profession is not new to Islam. Islamic traditions include sympathy for and responsibility toward those in need. This perspective had emerged during the development of Islam as a religion, culture, and civilization.

Ethos of health care service in Islam

1      Ethos of health care service
2      Approach to health care service
3      First Muslim nurse
4      Nursing in hospitals
5      References
In Islamic traditions, caring is the manifestation of love for Allah and Rasulullah . Caring in Islam, however, is more than the act of empathy; instead, it consists of being responsible for, sensitive to, and concerned with those in need, namely the weak, the suffering and the outcasts of society. This act of caring is further divided into three principles: intention, thought, and action. Intention and thought refer to who, what, where, when and why to care, whereas action is related to the knowledge necessary to be able to care. In short, health care is deemed as service to the patients and to Allah, as opposed to other professions that are commercial-based. This ethos was the fundamental motivating factor for the majority of the doctors and nurses in the history of Islam.

Approach to health care services in Islam
Another aspect of Islamic health care service that distinguishes it from the contemporary Western health care industry is the holistic approach to health and wellbeing taken. This holistic approach consists of both treating the organic basis of the ailments and providing spiritual support for the patient. This spiritual component comes in the form of Tawheed (Oneness of Allah), a dimension lacking in current Western models of nursing and, thus, could pose as a challenge for application of this model of nursing to Muslim patients as it does not meet their holistic needs.
Nursing in hospitals of the Medieval Muslim Society
In hospitals built in the Medieval Muslim society male nurses tended to male patients and female nurses to female patients.[4] The hospital in Al-Qayrawan (Kairouan in English) was especially unique among Muslim hospitals for several reasons. Built in 830 by the order of the Prince Ziyadat Allah I of Ifriqiya (817–838), the Al-Dimnah Hospital, constructed in the Dimnah region close to the great mosque of Al Qayrawan, was quite ahead of its time. It had the innovation of having a waiting area for visitors, not to mention that the first official female nurses were hired from Sudan to work in this hospital. Moreover, aside from regular physicians working there, a group of religious imams who also practiced medicine, called Fugaha al-Badan, provided service as well, likely by tending the patients’ spiritual needs.
Know more about the heritage in science and health technology in Islam related to Al Qayrawan  Al Dimnah in nowadays Tunisia. here


(Al-Osimy, 1994; Jan, 1996

Tuesday

Asim Ibn Thabit RA


Asim ibn Thabit RA (Arabic: عاصم بن ثابت‎‎) was one of the Ansar, a person belonging to one of the first generations of Muslims and who helped Muhammad after his migration to Medina.

Asim ibn Thabit RA participated in the Battle of Badr. Rasulullah 's forces included Saiyidina Abu Bakr RA, Saiyidina Umar Ibn Al Khattab RA, Saiyidina Ali Ibn Abi Talib RA, Saiyidina Hamzah Ibn Abdul Muttalib RA, Saiyidina Mus`ab ibn `Umair RA, Saiyidina Az-Zubair bin Al-'Awam RA, Saiyidina Ammar ibn Yasir RA, and Saiyidina Abu Dhār al-Ghifari RA. The Muslims also brought seventy camels and two horses, meaning that they either had to walk or fit three to four men per camel. However, many early Muslim sources indicate that no serious fighting was expected, and the future Saiyidina Othman Ibn Affan RA stayed behind to care for his sick wife Ruqayyah, the daughter of Rasulullah . Salman Al Farisi RA also could not join the battle, as he was still not a free man.

Asim ibn Thabit RA also participated in the Invasion of Hamra al-Assad, after staying at Hamra al-Assad for three days, Rasulullah returned to Madinah. Asim ibn Thabit RA captured Abu Azzah al-Jumahi as prisoner. Abu Azzah had previously been one of the prisoners of Badr. Abu Azzah Amr bin Abd Allah al-Jumahi had been treated kindly by Rasulullah after the Battle of Badr, being a poor man with daughters, he had no means to pay ransom, he was released after Battle of Badr, on the condition that he would not take up arms against Muslims again. But he had broken his promise and participated in Battle of Uhud. Abu Azzah al-Jumahi pleaded for mercy again, but Rasulullah ordered him to be killed. Az-Zubair executed him, and in another version, Asim ibn Thabit.

The father of one of Umar's wives, Umm Kulthum bint Asim, was Asim ibn Thabit RA. It is not clear if that person is the same person as the subject of this article is with regards to Saiyidina Asim ibn Thabit RA.

Hadith about Asim Ibn Thabit RA as narrated by Abu Hurairah RA;
A narration attributed to Abu Hurairah reports:

Rasulullah sent out ten men on a scouting expedition and put 'Asim ibn Thabit al-Ansari RA in command of them. They proceeded until they reached Had ‘a, which is between 'Usfan and Makkah.

This during the Expedition of Al Raji. In 625 some men requested that Rasulullah send instructors to teach them Islam, but the men were bribed by the two tribes of Khuzaymah who wanted revenge for the assassination of Khalid bin Sufian by Rasulullah 's followers and they killed the Muslim's.

Their presence was reported to a branch of Hudhayl called the Banu Lihyan. About a hundred men, who were all archers, set out after them. They followed their tracks. When Asim Ibn Thabit RA and his companions perceived them, they took cover. The people surrounded them and said, 'Come down and give your selves up! You have protection and assurance that we will not kill any of you!'

Asim ibn Thabit RA said, 'O people! As for me, I will not come down into the protection of an unbeliever! O Allah, inform Your Prophet about us!' They shot at them with arrows and killed Asim Ibn Thabit RA. A group of three came down, accepting the offer of protection and security. They included Khubayb al-Ansari RA, Zayd ibn Dathina RA, and another man,

Rasulullah informed his Companions about them on the day they fell. When they were informed that Asim ibn Thabit RA had been killed, some of the unbelievers of Quraish were sent to bring part of him that could be recognized. He had killed one of their great men on the Day of Badr. After killing Asim ibn Thabit RA, Hudhayl wanted to sell his head.
Allah SWT sent over Asim ibn Thabit RA a swarm of bees like a cloud and it protected him from their messengers and they could not cut off any part of him.”
A brief story on why the hatred and revengefulness of the unbelievers to Saiyidina Asim Ibn Thabit RA, and this took place after the “Battle of Uhud”

Ever despaired in your Du'as?
Ever thought that they are not answered or that Allah Azza Wa Jal doesn’t respond?

Then, let me narrate to you of another the story of ‘Asim Ibn Thabit RA.
During the Battle of Uhud, when the Muslims purportedly faced defeat though not reliably authenticated of the fact, the Quraish celebrated with their revenge but this was not enough for the ladies of their tribes. Hind, the woman who slaughtered the body of Saiyidina Hamzah RA, together with other women started to go out on the battlefield and started to dance and desecrate the dead bodies of the Mujahideen. Astagfirullah!

Narrations say that in the passionate desire for revenge, these women slit up the belies of the Mujahideen, gouged out their eyes and cut off their noses and their ears. One woman among them shaped an anklet of the nose of a Mujahideen and put it on her feet and started dancing joyfully amidst the dead bodies.

Astagfirullah!!!
But then came out Salafah Bint Sa'ad, who was very different from the other women, she was anxious about her family, so she started to look for them, she search high and low until she found the body of her husband soaked in his own blood, and near him were her sons, Mustafa, Kalab and Jalas who was breathing his last
On this Salafah asked who killed them, and Jalas said it was 'Asim Ibn Thabit. Hearing this Salafah started to scream and swore by the false gods 'Uzza and Lat that her rage could not die down until she had taken revenge on 'Asim ibn Thabit and drank wine from his skull.

After this, she indeed proclaimed that she would give any amount for the person who can bring her the head of 'Asim ibn Thabit, and this spread like fire amongst the Quraish. So one by one they started to search for 'Asim ibn Thabit.


After the Battle of Uhud, Rasulullah sent  the Sahabah RA  on a special mission with 'Asim Ibn Thabit RA as its  leader.

They were a few distance from Makkah when a group of Banu Hudhayl pursued them and ambushed them. The people tried to bribe the Sahabah RA and told them that they won’t be killed as long as they lay down their weapons.

Asim Ibn Thabit RA with all his courage said “I will not lay down my weapons before the Mushrikeen!”
Then, he remembered the swearing of Salafah and he prayed:
“O Allah! I protect and defend your faith and, have Mercy on me and protect my flesh and my bones; please do not allow them to fall into the hands of the enemy.”
After this Asim Ibn Thabit RA attacked the enemy with two of his companions, they fought fiercely until they were martyred one by one. The three other surrendered and were killed, one committed suicide and the other 2 killed by the Banu Hudhayl.

Now, this is where the power of du'a comes. After few hours of the martyrdom of Asim Ibn Thabit RA, the Quraish learnt of the where about of his body which was lying in the area inhabited by the Banu Hudhayl..
So, with the hungry bellies of the Quraish for money, they started to give a lot of money to their messengers so that they could succeed in getting the head of Asim Ibn Thabit RA.

When they succeeded, some men of the Banu Hudhayl went to the place where the body Asim Ibn Thabit RA was lying; when they were near it to cut off his head they found a whole lot of bees, wasps and hornets surrounding the body and head of Asim Ibn Thabit RA. Whenever they attempted to cut it these bees and wasps would attack them so they couldn’t do anything but give up and wait for the nightfall.

The sun had not yet set when suddenly dark dense of clouds appeared on the sky, the very air seemed to tremble with the thunder and heavy rains had fallen.


Soon the streets and roads took on the appearance of streams, low-lying areas were filled, and there was water everywhere. It rained heavily the whole night and the Banu Hudhayl went back to their homes.

Next morning they came out to get the head of Asim Ibn Thabit RA but as they went towards the field the body was nowhere to be found. The flood washed it away to some unknown place; they searched high and low but the body of Asim Ibn Thabit RA disappeared like dust in the wind.

Subhan'Allah. Look how Allah Azza Wa Jall responded to the du'a of His faithful servant Asim Ibn Thabit RA. Allah SWT sent down wasps and bees to cover his body as protection to these people who had the intention to use his limbs and whatever is left of him into devilish and sinful act of drinking wine. Allah SWT  sent down heavy rain so that his body won’t be found and away from the Mushrikeen.

Allah Azza Wa Jal will never allow the Mushrikeen to triumph over the Mu'mineen and this is how he protects His faithful servants. Similarly in Palestine, the Kuffar may plan anything against the Mu'mineen, but the Divine Plan overcomes all other plans.

Indeed, the story of Asim Ibn Thabit truly reminds us of the one of the famous “Ayat of the Qur'an” where Allah Azza Wa Jall says:
“Call upon me and I will respond to you.” 40:60
So never despair of His Mercy and never underestimate the power of your du'a. Remember Allah Azza Wa Jall knows what you are about to ask Him even if you haven’t uttered them, He is within You, Your heart itself, calls upon Allah Azza Wa Jall with every beat.

“Rabb. Rabb. Rabb. La Hawla wala Quwwata illa billah.”
May you all benefit from the story of Asim Ibn Thabit RA.

Amin. Ya Rabb

Another version - The story of Asim Ibn Thabit RA the less known companion of Rasulullah ﷺ.

Commanders of the Muslim Army, Ghadanfar
Note: This is part of the collection of Golden Stories of the Sahabah Stories, which narrates and shares the amazing stories of the Sahabah RA as taken from excerpts of their lives.


Asim ibn Thabit: The Companion whose Body Was Protected after his demised.
Rasulullah , was conversing with his companions before the battle of Badr when Rasulullah asked them: "How do you plan to fight?" Asim ibn Thabit RA stood up holding his bow, and said: "If the enemy is a hundred yards away, I will shoot with the arrows. If they come within the reach of our spears, I will fight them until the spears break, then we will put them down and it will be time for dueling with the swords." Rasulullah said: "This is indeed the way to combat! Anyone who fights, he should fight like Asim Ibn Thabit."

This testimony of Rasulullah attests to the skill of Asim Ibn Thabit RA in wars. His companions never forgot how bravely he fought during the battle of Uhud. After the battle's dust settled down, the pagan women rushed to the battleground mutilating the corps of the Muslim martyrs. They cut off ears and noses and made them into anklets and collars!

One of them mounted on a high rock and shrieked at the top of her voice: "We have paid you back for Badr!" Salafah bint Sa’ad went out with them looking for her husband and sons. She was worried because she did not see them among the returning warriors. She penetrated deeply into the battlefield, scrutinizing the faces of the dead bodies when she saw her husband lying lifeless in a pool of blood.


She looked frantically searching for her three sons. There they were lying on the ground not far from their father. As for her two first sons they were dead, but the third still had a breath of life within him. She put his head on her lap and wiped the blood from his face. She asked him: "Who struck you down my son?" Fighting the death rattle in his throat, he answered with great difficulty: "Asim ibn Thabit struck me, and he also killed my brother Musafi', and…" he rendered his last breath before he could finish his words.


Salafah rose up, mad with rage and sorrow, she wailed and howled like a wounded beast. She vowed to take revenge for her husband and sons, for her anger and sorrow would not be alleviated until she would hold Asim ibn Thabit's skull in her hands and drink wine from it. She promised to give anyone who came with his head whatever he wished of gold and money. Now everyone in Quraish knew of Salafah's vow and every young man wished that he could be the one who would get the prize.


Not long after the Battle of Uhud, Rasulullah , sent six of his companions to an Arab tribe who newly accepted Islam to instruct them in the religion and to teach them to read Qur'an. Among them was Asim Ibn Thabit RA.
The group was on its way not far from Makkah, when a tribe from Hudhayl got news of them, and set off for their pursuit. While they were off their guard sitting with their belongings and arms next to them, men with swords in their hands surprised them and encircled them. They took their swords to fight them, but the men told them: "There is no way that you can overcome us, and by God we do not intend any harm for you if you surrender yourself. We swear by God we will not kill you."

Rasulullah ’s companions looked at each other as if to consult each other as to what to do next. Seeing their hesitance Asim ibn Thabit RA exclaimed: "As for me, By Allah I will never accept an undertaking and agreement from a disbeliever." Then he added: "O Allah, I fight to defend Your Deen. O Allah protects my flesh and bones and do not let them fall into the hands of Your enemies." Thereupon Asim Ibn Thabit RA fought with his two friends until they were killed. As for the rest of the companions they chose to surrender, but soon their captors betrayed them and killed them all.

Now the Hudhayl did not know that among those they had killed was Asim Ibn Thabit RA, and so when they realized who he was, they went back to the place of the battle to bring his skull to Salafah and win the prize. But when they wanted to get to him, they were surprised to find that swarms of bees and wasps were surrounding him!

Whenever they tried to get near him the bees would sting them in the faces and the eyes. The insects protected the body of Asim Ibn Thabit RA and did not allow any of the disbelievers to even touch him. They finally gave up after many trials, when one of them said: "Let him alone until nightfall, then the insects will leave him and we can take his skull." Before even the day was gone the sky became dark with clouds and a heavy rain fell on the ground the like of which they have never seen before. Allah sent a flood in the valley. When the morning came they went back to the place to look for the body, but in vain did they search. They could not find it.

That was because the flood washed it body away from them and it was never found. Allah has fulfilled Asim's prayer and has saved his flesh and bones from falling into the hands of the disbelievers!

Asim ibn Thabit RA was killed during the Expedition of Al Raji. In 625, some men requested that Rasulullah send instructors to teach them Islam, but the men were bribed by the two tribes of Khuzaymah who wanted revenge for the assassination of Khalid bin Sufyan by Rasulullah 's followers and they killed the Muslim's. After killing Asim ibn Thabit RA, Hudhayl wanted to sell his head.

Selected Hadiths narrated and attributed by Asim Ibn Thabit RA

Not many hadith narrated by Asim Ibn Thabit RA - apart from the narration from Abu Hurairah RA of his sacrifices and piousness in the path of Allah SWT. The various version and stories on this page only depicts and reveal just a brief sacrifices of Asim Ibn Thabit RA during the early hour of Islam.



Video 1 - English